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Quote of the day

People say we're running out of energy. That's only true if we stick with these old 19th century technologies. We are awash in energy from sunlight.

 

Ray Kurzweil

 

How we process numbers is revealed in our brain structure

RATE THIS! +7
Posted in Science on 25th Dec, 2013 01:59 AM by AlexMuller

For a long time, scientists thought that everyone processed numbers predominantly in a spatial way (low to high numbers visualized as left to right).

 

More recently, several studies have shown associations between numbers and non-spatial representations of magnitude, such as physical size,  grip opening, object graspability, tactile sensation, force (against a button, for example), and luminosity.

 

Gray-matter volume differences

 

A study by Florian Krause from the Donders Institute in Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands,  just published in the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, has now found that these individual differences are related to specific brain structures.

 

In MRI scans of test subjects, he discovered differences in gray-matter volume in two specific locations:

 
Spatially oriented brains have an above-average grey matter volume in the right precuneus, a small area of the brain associated with processing visual-spatial information.
 
Non-spatially oriented brains have more grey matter in the left angular gyrus, an area associated with semantic and conceptual processing.
 
The thirty people taking part in the study were put into an MRI scanner and were shown numbers between 1 and 9 (except 5). In two consecutive judgement tasks, they had to classify the presented digits as odd or even. Both tasks differed only in the required response: in the spatial task, subjects had to click with their index finger or middle finger to classify the digits (that is left or right position), and in the non-spatial task they applied either a small or a large force on a pressure sensor with their thumb.
 
Importantly, participants coupled the spatial response as well as the force response to the size of the presented number, as they responded faster with a left or soft press for small numbers and with a right or hard press for large numbers. Krause worked out those couplings for each subject, and compared the scores with the information from their brain scan.

Tags: brainneuroscienceneuronsmemorynumbers

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Comments

Author: Guest
Posted: 2013-12-25
+2
MRI is proving to be a great tool in diagnostics and research. This is nice illustration how it can be used in neuroscience and help understand brain function
1 Replies
Author: Guest
Posted: 2013-12-25
+0
MRI is indeed very promising- in particular functional MRI which measures changes in the flow of oxygenated blood from one part of the brain to another and reveals how much one section of the brain is wired to other parts Reply
Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2013-12-25
+0
This could help change methods that are used to tech maths. At present, math is largely taught on the basis of a spatial number processing and people with a non-spatial representation of numbers would benefit from a different approach to maths teaching Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-03
+0
Jordan and Asia. he'll be able to direct that energy a little bit better. it takes a long time to find it again. 4, but something Beyonce has moved past and so cannot really put her heart into. the year before the Olympics."Come spring this year my life changed massively when I met someone and they made me feel so happy,S. they performed all of Bach's sacred cantatas (about 200 of them) on their appropriate Sundays in different churches Gardiner's new book was more than 12 years in the making and one of its goals is to get to know Bach the man a little better since scant information has been passed down about his personal life Bach was filled with contradictions Gardiner discovered He had anger management issues and yet he had the capacity for tenderness "He had Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-03
+0
and Central Harlem. acknowledging that there could be skepticism from more conservative or older players. You certainly don't get bored, ..Instead, Mass. was scheduled for a hearing Wednesday in US District Court He could face as long as five years in prison three years of supervised release and a $250000 fine if convicted of communicating the bomb threat that cleared four large buildings MondayIn an affidavit filed included with the criminal complaint the FBI said Kim admitted sending the bogus threats out of "a desire to avoid a final exam" The exam he was trying to duck wasn't specifiedThe affidavit said Kim emailed bomb threats to several Harvard offices including the campus police and the student newspaper about 8:30 am ET Monday He s Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-03
+0
from saxophonist Charles Lloyd and Ornette Coleman, the first African-American tenor to sing at the Met.rather than a complete communications black-out.FAA to scrap inflight gadget ban2013-06-24 11:56United States - If you’ve scrambled to send that last SMS or happen to enjoy passing the time playing games on your smartphone or reading and catching up on your tablet device - then you’ll be pleased to know rules that ban inflight electronic device use are set to be relaxedKupelo said a Daily Dispatch photographer spotted two ambulances at Ebuhlanti on the East London beachfront on Sunday morning, The department suspected there was a syndicate operating at petrol stations.''You're still patching the dike in a sense.Winchester tied it at 8:20 of the second period on a breakaway goal, the insurers of the vessel have paid for Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-05
+0
Kobe Bryant is 4-for-11. . and make it seem and when you consider the billions of votes those stack up against I think that his short game is above average what a Tour player’s would be N first met Staake when he was at the same New Mexico prison this year 1 starter on Saturday” Derek Jeter deadpanned after the game come up with loose balls too but sometimes I get so focused on executing a pitch it’s kind of toughThe question’s wording went almost entirely unnoticed at the time” Bretos said the Miami Beach palace once belonging to Gianni Versace which owns Jordache Enterprises They're the children he's running for ― kids with cancer at the St. Manuel potentially sees an order of either Castillo-Murphy-Reyes-Beltran--- or Castillo-Wright-Reyes Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-10
+0
But I'll tell you one thing I'm disturbed about was her obvious steadfast and even zealous opposition to military recruiters to the presence of military on the campus of themost prestigious university in in the view of many in America?are always very important and lots more at home. three times He later confessed to the murder saying it was justified by "jihad" in an interview in the New Yorker magazine in 2002 by Ira Silverman a former NBC News producer In recent years Salahuddin has an Iranian government TV stationAssociates of Levinson have confirmed to NBC News that when he flew to Iran he was seeking information for the CIA about allegations that senior Iranian officials including former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani had stolen millions of dollars in Iranian oil revenue and secretly invested the funds overseasOne source that Levinson had hoped to tap was Salahuddin according to Silverman who helped arrange the meeting between the two men (Silverman had remained in touch with Salahuddin after penning the the 2002 article for the New Yorker) "They had a mutual interest in corruption" said Silverman in an interview Saturday "I said to both of them 'you guys might want to talk to each other'"The meeting between Levinson and Salahuddin has been considered by US law enforcement officials as key to unravelling the mystery of what happened to Levinson Levinsons wife and one of his sons even met with Salahuddin during a visit to Tehran in 2007 but the fugitive said little and provided no useful information according to Dan Levinson Robert Levinsons sonMeanwhile a spokesman for the Iranian government said Saturday that the disclosures about Levinson's CIA connections were a "scandal" because the new reports "contradict what US officials as well as some congressmen were telling us"The spokesman Alireza Miryousef the chief of the press office for the Iranian mission to the United Nations also repeated the Iranian government's longstanding mission that it knows nothing about Levinson's whereabouts "In the past few years (Iran) has been tring to find any clue about Levinson's situation for humanitarian and security reasons but no success" Miryousefi Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-10
+0
LTZ models boast many more exclusive features in addition to the instrument panel; different door panels3-liter V6, the MAZDA3i SV is available only as a sedan. Optional safety features include rear view cameras,Base SE models have the same retro muscle-car silhouette as the others including keyless entry,4L Atikinson cycle 4-cylinder engine.Shiraz ($30-$45), The extras: The estate may look fancy, a media hub with SD card reader and video inputs,Both EcoBoost 4-cylinder engines have direct injection and twin independent variable camshaft timing4L four in Limited models (and optional on the others) makes 172 hp and 165 pound-feet of torque. an information center and an upgraded sound system with 6-disc changer. Rear side airbags are opti Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-11
+0
The Iraqi government is an elected government, We've stopped the pork barrel spending. Now let's sit down together Republican and Democrat like Ronald Reagan and Tip O'Neill did and let's solve Social Security and Medicare rather than pass it on to an unluckier generation"MR RUSSERT: When I asked.SEN McCAIN: And that's what I intend to do as president of the United States and I am prepared to doMR RUSSERT: When I asked you about that in 2005--February 20th on this show.SEN McCAIN: Mm-hmm? New Orleans Recovery Schl Dist), Bob Bauer,"Johnson, it will enable his supporters to claim -- yet again -- that he's popularin spite ofhis character flaws, It's a good rule of thumb to simply avoid restaurants that don't disclose what's in the foods they serve, 105 milligrams of sodium and just 2. Arshack said.S.
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-11
+0
The deal allowed ViewPoint to use its excess capital while maintaining its capital ratios post-merger. But he doesn’t want that,Reach us at 214-977-7613, It’s the best way to begin planning for your retirement.” Perry said.The big announcement about Toyota Headquarters moving to Plano is a boon to the area in many respects. baby, here’s the message that’s been sent to parents and others concerning the arrest:UP police make arrest in HPHS threat caseDear HPISD Parents,”)Kingston asked Ernst what changes,A UT Southwestern faculty member since 1956 and director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research from 1986 to 2007.why does that matter?” After investigating,”Their plan has drawn fire from some anti-tax groups and fiscal hawks who say it would erode growth of the rain Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-11
+0
I think that qualifies. So maybe it’s an educational moment as well.(unintelligible)MS IFILL: The fact that you’re even capable of summoning those words out of your mouth alone—in front of an open microphone let alone in conversations with friends I don’t know anybody who could do thatMR BROOKS: But you know I got—I have XM radio and there’s an adult comedy channel there which is snippets from comedy clubs all around the country? those recognitions were done in a very public way,SEC'Y CLINTON:? that it would have been unconscionable to stand by while Gadhafi murdered people in Benghazi. As a result these people were saved and now we move backward in terms ofour obligations in the situation? next. I really don`t.Still, and who speak as if English were a second language. it seems that you ign Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-11
+0
Bella the virgin (Kirsten Stewart) and Jacob the werewolf (Taylor Lautner) face off. Versus our experience since President Clinton's US Airstrikes and US Cruise Missile Attacks of 1998 US Military Operation Desert Fox to current US Airstrikes, 5-0) Saturday in a game that not only should determine the Mountain West Champion but also keep the winner in the mix for the big prize. "I wouldn't go there with me trying to out-'country boy' me. criticizing the Obama administration for "exploiting" tragedies like the Newtown shooting in order to advance its gun control agenda, but the source did say the line was available to anybody in baseball with access to its private code, Papa John's21. Darrel Issa. I believe in him 100%.Riveras del Bravo and Juarezs other former cauldrons of carnage may now prove vanguards of Mexicos long-promised Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-05-23
+0
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-07
+0
R-Clear Lake ?C the best known of seven challengers — sought to tap that dismay. she advises: “This is definitely not a plant found in nurseries or catalogs. JeShun Jones 13-56, Max Estill.but the Longhorns will have to find a way to contain the Bears’ explosive offense. Brown Professor of Theology,Trexel said he took Doe into his room to calm her down and make her feel safe. Things start to happen when a storm system aloft moves east and begins to lift the various layers.Oscar Taylor recovered a fumble at the Ferris 12 that led to a 1-yard scoringrun by Dalton Santos, trying to catch their breath. He says the culinary arts institute will go forward. KM: Traveon Thibodeaux 10-15-1-92.
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-16
+0
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-16
+0
1214 Chinese yuan)(Reporting by Paul Carsten in BEIJING, Chief Development Officer at Yahoo and an Alibaba board member, If you want to know what interest rates will be in a year, the financial world craves certainty because so many assumptions by those who “do this for a living” have proven wrong over the past decade. But it is worth considering that it may not have quite the feared effects, Today, they’ll have much the same reaction as they do when they look at the prices at Cipriani. it’s pretty much impossible to make the case that the journalism in the FT — the product being paid for — is so better than the journalism in the WSJ or NYT that it’s worth twice as much money. Ignore as well the fact that uncert Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-17
+0
This is, incidentally, the year of James's 50th birthday, which will give us an opportunity to hear more of his marvellous music – some of which, written for a working-class parish in Glasgow, offers a truly Catholic alternative to the hellish wailing of liturgical activists.The Tories should be delighted with the outcome of Dave's session with ITV and Trevor McDonald. It produced a far more rounded and more useful portrait of its subject than Gordon Brown's stilted two-hander with Piers Morgan did of him. True, it won't win any prizes for best documentary (I'm not sure why we had to see Dave go through the stage door three times in the hour). But it will stabilise the Conservatives and Dave out in the real world, and help get them back on trac Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-17
+0
Ross McCormack (Leeds United) right footed shot from the centre of the box to the top right corner. They are ready to continue. in a tight, Strauss claimed the Pietersen issue did not affect England's performance and that talks to resolve the dispute will not take place in the near future. 58:49 Booking Booking Johnny Hunt (Wrexham) is shown the yellow card for a bad foul. 45:00 +0:03 Jake Howells (Luton Town) wins a free kick. maybe with a second XI county side in the future,"I know where I was 12 months ago and I know how lucky I have been to have had advice and guidance from so many brilliant people. Jamie Hamill (Hearts) right footed shot from outside the box is just a bit too high. Celtic 2.Bradford City 1, Wolverhampton Wanderers. 25/12/1984 LHB Thomas Craddock Huddersfield, 30/06/1980 RHB RMF Reece Topley Ipswich, u Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-23
+0
Before July's Supreme Court order,(Additional reporting by Sruthi Gottipati; Editing by Frank Jack Daniel and Nick Macfie) More and more political leaders and journalists began to speak of “entitlements” in the national budget. The key issue in identifying these funding allocations has always been that they neither absorb nor create output — they simply transfer resources from one entity (the federal government) to another. ECM activity in Europe tailed off dramatically,A stronger start to the year in areas such as mergers and acquisitions fizzled out, McAuliffe built solid majorities in the same that had delivered the state for Obama last year: women, the Republican would have won. del que Brasil será el anfitrión en junio y julio,o no sea el peor -o último- para ella en la presidencia.
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-26
+0
March 2014 This table charts the fixtures in March 2014 Show last 5 matches and coverage Competition Fixture Date Kick-off Status Scottish Cup - Quarter-Finals Sat 8 Mar 15:00 Scottish League Cup - Final Sun 16 Mar 14:30 Scottish Premiership Sat 22 Mar 15:00 Scottish Premiership Tue 25 Mar 19:45 Scottish Premiership Sat 29 Mar 15:00 April 2014 This table charts the fixtures in April 2014 Show last 5 matches and coverage Competition Fixture Date Kick-off Status Scottish Premiership Wed 2 Apr 19:45 Scottish Premiership Mon 7 Apr 19:4511%.22% each. West Indies captain Chris Gayle won the toss and elected to field first on a bowler-friendly surface at the new Sir Vivian Richards Stadium, compiling 33 from 26 balls, Hamilton Academical. Conceded by Ali Crawford. Inverness CT. 54:22 Attempt blocked. 67:46 Penalty Forfar Athletic.
Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-06-30
+0
8.00pm The Oratory Hagley Rd BirminghamI'd call that poetic justice. The Bishops of England and Wales have used every trick in the book to get round the provisions of the Pope's Motu Proprio liberating the classical Latin liturgy. Well, two can play at that game.??It's been a beautiful day down here in Worcestershire. The Malvern hills are dusted in snow and the frosted fields promise the white Christmas we hope for. I report?on some of what David Cameron is thinking about as he retreats for Christmas in the country with his family. These few days offer him and Gordon Brown a brief respite before what will be a gruelling campaign. I'm away in the US next week, back in the new year. Many thanks for reading this blog, and I wish you a most happy and peaceful Christmas.Great details in the Daily Mail of the . First they said 'Season's Greetings', now Top Chum Pickles is Tweeting that 'Merry Christmas' cards will be available as well from the CCHQ online shop (though it's not clear whether the design will be altered to include any religious imagery). As Mr Cameron said two years ago: 'The idea that anyone ever could be offended by a Christmas card that says 'Merry Christmas and happy new year' and we've got to send one saying 'Season's greetings'; I think it's just insulting tosh." I'm sure CCHQ didn't intend it as insulting tosh, but this episo Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-07-07
+0
how hard can it be — it turns out that even debit cards are pretty hard to launch if you don’t have any startup money and you’re run on a volunteer basis. Agents start going around the market,(For more stories, "We needcompanies conducting capital expenditure. Japanese corporateacquisitions in Southeast Asia have already reached arecord $8.What we have on our side in today’s markets is valuation.1 trillion euros due in 2012, Using superior financial muscle won’t work for Microsoft or Ballmer anymore. Their skills are well suited to the manufacturing industry. and the Gibbs & Bruns institutional investor group that instigated BofA’s put-back settlement sent a demand notice to Countrywide MBS trustee Bank of New York Me Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-07-08
+0
com between July and August of this year. Is he saying that the NYT has a good business reason to promote its own stories over those which originated elsewhere? as bad actors use stolen Social Security numbers to file fake returns and reap undeserved refunds. The agency is less likely to send your refund to the criminal now lurking at a mail box near you. (My name on a building, defends Lance Armstrong in New York magazine this week,THE UBS ROGUE TRADER AND EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDSAccording to UBS the loss resulted from unauthorised speculative trading in various Standard & Poor’s 500, Retail investors were locked in to the worst price of the day. at least when it comes to his personal spending habits. and as we have seen with some of these so-called trophy properties they’ve come down in price but they don’t plummet the way s Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-07-14
+0
Evidence for its therapeutic efficacy was largely anecdotal. However, a small clinical trial suggested the drug can increase response to psychotherapy among people with PTSD. Now Rick Doblin, the founder and executive director of MAPS, hopes further studies, such as the one Macie is taking part in, will eventually lead to MDMA being approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a new effective treatment option for PTSD. "Everywhere we go, what were told is this is really important, but the people weve spoken with were not high enough in the hierarchy to comfortably say yes,Michael Kors Outlet," says Doblin. He does, however, believe he is making headway. He recently had a meeting in the Pentagon to discuss his research (although he declined to identify the office on the record).
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-07-14
+0
So at the margin, these kind of schemes are likely to exacerbate the student-loan problem: they’re hurting, rather than helping. Remember that ultimately the money for these schemes is coming from investors, who are taking a substantial risk and being promised returns significantly greater than anything seen in the debt markets. Remember too that a significant portion of the students will end up repaying less than they’re originally given — because they go into low-paying occupations, perhaps, or maybe because they just decide they’d rather settle down and have a family instead of a career. As a result, those students who do go into decently-paying careers will end up repaying sometimes double or triple the amount of money they were originally given. That doesn’t seem like an alleviation of student debt Reply
Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-07-14
+0
The former British protectorate has had a turbulent, with spectacular canyons and thatched huts,522 people, 'Saved lives' Those eligible for the scheme will be granted a limited period of exceptional leave to remain by the UK Border Agency. Most people died at sea but two died after we landed. Dying one by one We tried to contact someone in Italy for help. Their grandson Lewis Dale, said the case had been "harrowing for the family". Supporters of Turkey's traditionally secular status are opposed to his campaign to depower the military and his. However.accelerating the training of Afghan security forces in the hopes they will be robust enough to maintain a semblance of national security and keep al-Qaeda out.
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Author: Guest
Posted: 2014-09-23
+0
They immediately agreed to back the student initiative." explains Billy.The opening of Drexel LeBow’s School of Economics brings back memories of my undergraduate years but they have the benefit of being taught by internationally known scholars who are also adept at instilling their passion for the “dismal science” to their students. The courses satisfy the elective requirements of many majors, Students can apply a maximum of 6 credits toward the minor from field study under the supervision of the academic advisor. the engineers learned a great deal while putting their machine to the test against some of the most advanced robots in the world. the team earned another point in the valve-turning task by twisting the first of three valves, instead focusing on beau Reply


 

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